top of page

Frequently Asked Questions

At Air Revolution Technologies, we pride ourselves on our commitment to customer satisfaction. We believe that communication is key, which is why we are always available to help with any questions you may have. Our team of experts is knowledgeable in all areas of our products and services, and we are always happy to share our knowledge with our customers. If you haven't found what you're looking for, don't hesitate to get in touch.



What is Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation {UVGI)?

UVGI is a sterilization method that uses ultraviolet (UV) light at sufficiently short wave(ength to break down microorganisms. It is used in a variety of applications, such as food, air andwater purification. UVhasbeen a known mutagen at the cellular levelfor more thanone-hundred years. The1903Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to Niels Finsen for his use of UV against tuberculosis.

UVGI utilises the short wavelength of UV(253.7nm) thatis harmfulto microorganisms. It is effective in destroying the nucleic acidsin these organisms so that their DNA is disrupted by the UV radiation. Thisremoves their reproductive capabilities and kills them. The wavelength of UV that causes thiseffect is rareon Earth asits atmosphere blocks it. Usinga UVGI devicein certain environments likecirculating air or water systems creates a deadly effect onmicro-organisms such aspathogens, viruses andmolds and voesthat are in these environments.


What is Titanium Dioxide (Ti02)?

Titanium dioxide, also knownas titanium (IV) oxide ortitania, is thenaturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. Titanium dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is aphotocatalystunder ultraviolet (UV) light.Recently it has beenfound that titanium dioxide, when spiked with nitrogen ionsor doped with metaloxide liketungsten trioxide, is alsoa photocatalyst under either visible or UV light. The strongoxidative potential of the positiveholes created under photo-catalysisoxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly. Titanium dioxide is thusadded to paints, cements, windows, tiles, or other products for its sterilizing,deodorizing and anti-fouling propertiesand is used asa hydrolysis catalyst. Thephotocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide were discovered by Akira Fujishima in 1967 and published In1972.


What is an Ionizer?

An air ionizer (or negative ion generator) is a device that useshigh voltage to ionize (electrically charge) air molecules. Negativeions, or anions, are particles with one or more extra electrons, conferring a net negative charge to the particle. Cations are positiveions missingoneor moreelectrons, resulting in a net positive charge. Most commercial air purifiers aredesigned to generate negative ions.Another type of air ionizer is the ESDionizer (balanced ion generator) used to neutralize static charge. Air ionizers are commonly used in air purifiers. Airborne particles areattracted to the electron in an effect similar to static electricity. These ions are de-ionized by seeking earthed conductors, such aswalls and ceilings. To increase the efficiency of thisprocess, some commercial products provide such surlaces within the device.Ionization technology has been used to addressnosocomial infections in British hospitals. TheSARS pandemic fueled the desire for personal ionizersin the Far East,including Japan wheremany products have beenspecialized to contain negativeion generators, including tooth brushes, refrigerators, air conditioners, air cleaners and washing machines.


What are Pathogens?

Apathogen,(from Greekpathos"suffering, passion", and gignomai (gen•) "I givebirthto") aninfectious agent,or more commonly germ, is a biological agentthat causes disease to its host. Common examplesinclude TB, SARS andHlNlviruses. There are several substrates andpathways wherebypathogens caninvade ahost; the principal pathways have different episodic time frames. The bodycontainsmanynatural orders of defense against some of the common pathogens (such as Pneumocystis) in the form of the human immune system and by some"helpful bacteria present in the human body's normal flora. However, if the immune system or "good" bacteria is damaged in any way (such asby chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus(HIV), or antibioticsbeing taken to killother pathogens), pathogenic bacteria that werebeing held at bay can proliferate and cause harm to the host.Such cases arecatledopportunistic infection.


Today, while manymedical advances have been made to safeguard against infection by pathogens, through the use of vaccination, antibiotics, and fungicide, pathogens continue to threaten human life.Social advances such as air purification, food safety, personal hygiene,and water treatment have reduced the threat from some pathogens.


What are Volatile Organic Compounds?

Volatile organic compounds(VOCs) refer to organic chemical compounds which have significant vapor pressure and which can affect the environment andhuman health. voes are numerous, varied, and ubiquitous. Although voesinclude bothman-made and naturally occurring chemical compounds, it is the anthropogenicVOesthat are regulated, especially for indoors where concentrationscan be highest. voesare typically not acutely toxic but havechronic effects. Because the concentrationsareusually low and the symptoms slow to develop, analysis of voesand their effects is a demanding area.


Since people today spend most of their timeat home or in an office,long-term exposure to voes in the indoor environment cancontribute to sick building syndrome. In offices,VOCresults from new furnishings, wall coverings, andofficeequipment such asphotocopy machines, which can off-gas voes into theair. Good ventilation and air conditioning systems that incorporatepurification mechanisms are helpful at reducing voe emissions in the indoorenvironment. Studies also show thatrelative leukemia andlymphoma canincrease through prolonged exposureof voes in the indoorenvironment.


Some voes are commonly found in indoor officeenvironments, these include; toluene, formaldehyde, benzene and ethylene.


What is a Colony-forming Unit?

Acolony-forming unit ore FUis used to determine the number of viable bacterial cells in a sample per ml. Hence, it tells the degree of contamination in samples of air, water,vegetables, soilor fruits,or the magnitude of the infectionin humans and animals. It isdifferent from the direct microscopic counts thatinclude both dead and living cells.


What is Sick Building Syndrome?

Sick buildingsyndrome {SBS) is a combinationof ailments(a syndrome) associated with anindividual's place of work(office building) or residence. A1984 WorldHealth Organization report into the syndrome suggested up to 30%of new andremodeled buildings worldwide maybe linked to symptoms ofSBS, and today the figure is probably significantly higher. Most sick building syndrome is related to poor indoor air quality.


Sick buildingcauses are frequently pinned down to flawsin theheating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Othercauses have been attributed to contaminants produced by outgassingof some types of building materials, volatile organic compounds (VOC), moulds, pathogens, improper exhaust ventilation of ozone (byproduct of some officemachinery), light industrial chemicals used within the products, or lack of adequate fresh-air intake/air filtration.


What are Hydroxyl Radicals?

Radicals(often referred to as free radicals) areatoms, molecules, or ionswith unpaired electrons on anopen shell configuration.Free radicalsmay havepositive, negative or zero charge. Even though they have unpaired electrons, by convention, metals and their ions or complexes with unpairedelectrons are not radicals. Withsome exceptions, the unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive.

The hydroxyl radical,OH-, is the neutral formof the hydroxide ion {OH-). Hydroxyl radicals arehighly reactive and consequently short-lived; however, they forman important part of radicalchemistry. Hydroxyl radicals are produced duringUV-light dissociation of H202 (suggested in 1879). Inorganic synthesis hydroxyl radicals are most commonly generated by photolysis of l-Hydroxy-2(1H)-pyridinethione.

The hydroxyl radical is often referred to as the "detergent of thetroposphere becauseit reacts withmany pollutants, often acting as the first step to their removal. It also hasan important role in eliminating some greenhouse gases like methane and ozone. The first reaction withmanyvolatile organic compounds (VOCs) is the removal of a hydrogen atom forming water and an alkyl radical.


What is Photodissociation?

Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is achemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. It is defined asthe interaction of oneor more photons withonetarget molecule.


Photodissociationis not limited to visible light.Any photon with sufficient energy can affect the chemicalbonds of achemical compound. Since aphoton's energy is inversely proportional to its wavelength, electromagnetic waves with theenergy of visible light orhigher, such asultraviolet light,x-rays andgamma raysare usually involved in such reactions.


What is a Photocatalyst?

In chemistry, photo-catalysisis the acceleration of a photoreaction in thepresenceof a catalyst. In catalysed photolysis, light is absorbed byanadsorbed substrate. In photogenerated catalysis, the photocatalytic activity (PCA) depends on the ability of the catalyst to createelectron-hole pairs, which generate free radicals (hydroxyl radicals: -OH) able to undergo secondary reactions. Its comprehension has beenmade possible ever since the discovery of waterelectrolysis by meansof titanium dioxide. When Ti02 is illuminated with light of sufficient energy, electron-holepairs areexcited so that additional electrons goacross the bandgap to conduction band, whileholes stay in the valence band. Theexcited electronsmay thenbeused for redoxreactions at the surface of Ti02.


What is an Air Purifier?

An air purifier isa device which is designed to remove pathogens, volatileorganic compounds and other contaminants fromthe air. These devices arecommonly marketed asbeing beneficial to allergy sufferers and asthmatics, and at reducing or eliminating second-hand tobacco smoke. Commercial grade air purifiers are manufactured aseither small stand-alone units or larger units that canbe affixed to the ceilingof a room.


What is Building Related Illness?

BuildingRelated Illness(BRI) is a more severe condition than SBSandcan alsobe caused by poor air quality. It usually affectsa smaller percentage of abuilding's occupants. BRItends to bethe term used when the underlying cause of the condition has been identified by aphysician. BRIis usually a moresevere condition than general SBS.


What are Nosocomial Infections?

Nosocomial infections areinfections that are the result of treatment in a hospital or other healthcare facility. Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear48 hours or moreafter hospitaladmission or within 30 days after discharge. This typeof infection is also known asa hospital-acquired infection.


What is an MRSA infection?

The term MRSA stands for Methicillin-resistant StaphylococcusAureu and is a moredangerous form of the common Staphylococcusinfection. MRSA is not effectively treated by penicillin or other antibiotics as traditional "Staph infections are,which is why they areof such concern. Thisis also whythe viruscan often be fatalif contracted,particularly if it is not properly diagnosed.


The first reported cases of the MRSA virus came from hospitals and wereblamed on unsterile conditions or instruments andit hassubsequently been acknowledged that MRSA canbecontracted through airborne transmission of the virus. MRSA oftenoccursin post-surgery wounds, which is where the most fatalities occur. A person who has gone through major surgery is already in a weakened state and hisor her immune system is not capable of effectively combatingthe MRSA virus even withthehelp of antibiotics.


What do we mean by Indoor Air Quality?

Indoor air quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within a buildings or structuresespecially as it relates to the health and comfort of the building's occupants. IAQ canbeaffected by microbial contaminants like mould and bacteria; various gases, including carbon monoxide, radon andvolatile organic compounds; andother airborne


particulates that can lead to adversehealth conditions. The quality of indoor air continues to deteriorateand is becoming a moreserious health hazard thanthe outdoor air we breathe. Air purification usingphotocatalytic oxidation technology is an effect way to combat IAQ problems.

bottom of page